NBMG Exceptions to UGS


Information listed below in quotations is taken directly from the UGS style manual (Guide for the Preparation of Reports for the Utah Geological Survey).


p. 18-21NBMG uses the entire URL, including “http://” in references and text. NBMG also does not precede the URL with the word “online.” The URL is preceded by a comma.

p. 21NBMG has used “CD-ROM” in the past.  UGS spells out “compact disk” at the end of the citation (Electronic media).

p. 21 – UGS uses “doi” for journal articles.

p. 21NBMG uses the word “text” instead of “pamphlet” in citations.

Section Headings

p. 30 – NBMG left justifies first- and second-level headings (per Jennifer and Chris), unlike the UGS format below:

UGS: “First-level headings are main section titles. Headings such as ABSTRACT, INTRODUCTION, STUDY METHODS, and REFERENCES are in this group. First-level headings are separated from preceding text by two blank lines, and from subsequent text by one blank line. Center first level headings and type in bold, all uppercase letters.”

“Second-level headings are subdivisions of each major section. Subdivision of a main section requires at least two second-level headings. Single blank lines separate second-level headings from previous and subsequent text. Center second-level headings and type in bold upper- and lowercase letters.”

New—NBMG will now indent the first sentence of the first paragraph under each heading. Previously (1998 to 2009), NBMG had not indented the first sentence of the first paragraph under each heading.

Latin Abbreviations

p. 33 – NBMG uses “et al.” in the text (differs from UGS which uses “and others”). The purpose of using “et al.” is to make it easier when faculty members want to publish articles in the GSA journals—GSA uses “et al.” in the text. Note here the GSA use of “and others” in their citation example.

NBMG will continue to use “and others” for publications for the general public (Special Publication guidebooks, Educational Series, etc.).

UGS: “The Latin abbreviation et al. (et alia; “and others”) may not be used in reference citations; UGS reference style follows that of the U.S. Geological Survey in writing out “and others” in reference citations in the text (see References section).”


p. 38It is acceptable to capitalize “Mine” as part of the mine name if the author is consistent throughout the NBMG document. The author may also choose to follow the UGS convention shown below.

UGS: “By convention, mining district, oil field, gas field, field, mine, smelter, and other terms related to mineral or hydrocarbon extraction and processing are not capitalized when included as part of a proper name.”

City Creek mining district
Grassy Trail Creek oil field
Wasatch Plateau coalfield
Bingham Canyon mine
Black Rock smelter


p. 45NBMG allows the use of a comma in numbers with four digits, x,xxx (5,271 is OK). USGS also allows x,xxx.

UGS: “Use a comma to separate groups of three digits to the left of a decimal point in numbers of 10,000 or larger except for serial numbers. Do not use commas to the right of a decimal point.

no. E-462591-15-326A”